Palm Nursery

Nursery practices

The fruits are separated from the bunch and seeds are extracted by scraping off the exocarp and mesocarp with a knife, or by retting in water. The seeds are then dried by spreading them on concrete or wooden floors under shade for two days. Such seeds can be stored for 3-9 months at about 27 ºC without much reduction in viability.Seeds are soaked in water for five days, changing the water daily. Thereafter, the seeds are spread out to dry for 24 hours. The dried seeds are put in polythene bags and placed in germinator maintained at a temperature of 40 ºC. After 80 days, the seeds are removed from polythene bags, soaked in water for 5 days changing the water daily and dried in the shade for two hours. The seeds are then put back into bags and kept in a cool place in order to maintain the moisture content. Germination commences in about 10-12 days. The percentage of germination obtainable by this method is 90-95.

Raising nursery

Polybags (preferably black) of 400-500 gauge measuring 40 x 35 cm are used. The bags are filled with topsoil and compost and are arranged at a spacing of 45 x 45 cm and one sprouted seed is dibbled per bag. A good mulching during summer is desirable. Watering the seedlings weekly thrice is recommended. A fertilizer mixture containing 15 g N, 15 g P2O5 and 6 g K2O at the rate of 8 g in five litres of water for 100 seedlings may be applied when the seedlings are two month and eight month old.

LAYOUT OF PATHS AND NURSERY BEDS

Nursery bed is the name for the strip of soil where the oil palm seedlings are planted.It is best to make the nursery on flat ground.But, if the ground slopes, the beds must lie across the slope.The beds should be 45 metres long and 3.5 metres wide.The soil of the beds should be well worked to make it quite flat.After that, apply a dressing of fertilizer. For instance, at La Mé, Ivory Coast, 250 kilogrammes of 10:10:20 fertilizer are applied per hectare.

PUTTING UP SHELTERS



In certain regions shelter has to be put up over the nursery.This protects the young seedlings from a disease called blast.
These shelters are made with posts and bamboo sticks.To make the shelters more solid, put two posts together.The posts should be 2.5 metres high. The bamboo sticks are tied to the posts with lianas.

Finally, put palm fronds over the bamboo sticks.In Benin, shade for the young oil palms is provided by planting castor-oil plants in the nursery.
If you make a shelter, you need not mulch, but you must hoe very often.Get rid of all the weeds, and always keep the soil loose.

Three months after transplanting, if the seedlings have grown well, apply monthly to each plant 15 to 20 grammes of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and potassium chloride.Spread the fertilizer mixture in a ring 10 centimetres from the seedling and water.Hoe to work the fertilizer into the ground.

The seedlings stay in the nursery for about 1 year.You must plan, therefore, to make the nursery about 1 year before you want to plant your palm grove.






ABNORMAL PLANTS (3 Month In Nursery Palm Oil)



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Penyakit Pada Peringkat Semaian



Tiga Peringkat Pemilihan

    1. Peringkat awal ialah semasa anak benih hendak dialih dari polibeg kecil ke polibeg besar atau semasa anak benih berumur tiga bulan dari tarikh semai di tapak semaian satu peringkat. Biasanya 5%-10% anak benih tidak terpilih pada peringkat ini.
    2. Peringkat kedua ialah selepas daun terbuka untuk membentuk pinat. Biasanya 5%-10% anak benih tidak terpilih pada peringkat ini. Untuk mendapatkan anak benih yang bermutu, adalah disarankan tidak menghadkan jumlah peratus penakaian.
    3. Peringkat ketiga ialah sebelum anak benih ditanam di ladang iaitu setelah anak benih berumur 12 bulan dari tarikh semai. Anak benih yang tidak dipilih pada peringkat ini biasanya tidak melebihi 5%. Anak benih yang tidak terpilih hendaklah dimusnahkan.

Perosak Pada Peringkat Semaian



Kaedah Kawalan Rumpai

Racun Rumpai Yang Disyorkan Untuk Kawalan Rumpai Di Tapak Semaian Sawit

    1. Bagi mengawal rumpai jenis rumput seperti E. zindica (rumput sambau) dengan menggunakan gliposat pada kadar 1.5liter/450liter air (jangan disiram selama satu hari selepas semburan. Titis semburan boleh merosakkan pucuk dan pelepah baru).
    2. Bagi mengawal rumpai jenis rumput seperti E. indica (rumput sambau) don P.Conjugatum (rumput kerbau) sahaja : fluzifop-butyl pada kadar 1.5 liter/450 liter air.
    3. Bagi mengawal rumpai berdaun lebar atau rumput + rumpai berdaun lebar : glufosinat-ammonium pada kadar 3.5 liter/450 liter air.
    4. Bagi mengawal rumpai A.Gangetica (akar ruas-ruas), B.Iatifolia (rumput setawar) dan A.Conyzoides (rumput tahi ayam) : metsulfuron-metil pada kadar 70 gram/450 liter air.

Racun Rumpai Untuk Kawalan Rumpai Di Sekeliling Pangkal Pokok Kelapa Sawit Matang Dan Lorong Tuaian Buah Sawit

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Racun Rumpai Untuk Kawalan Rumpai Di Kawasan Tanaman Sawit Muda

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Racun Rumpai Untuk Kawalan Rumpai Terpilih

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